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Antibiotics: what are they and how do they work?
#9
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(08-16-2010, 04:11 PM)protoxin Wrote: If antibiotics don't prevent against viral infections, why do we take antibiotics in viral fever?

An antibiotic against viral infection or viral fever is wrong terminology. Antibiotics are used for treatment against pathogenic bacteria (Disease causing bacteria) only and not viruses. Antibiotics are one of the types of antimicrobial. The another similar type of antimicrobial used against viruses is termed as Antiviral drugs. Therefore instead of using antibiotics against virus infection, it should be Antiviral drugs or simply Antiviral. Examples of some anti-viral drugs are Abacavir which is an anti-HIV drug. Trifluridine (Trifluorothymidine or TFT) is an anti-herpes virus antiviral drug, used primarily on the eye. Peramivir is used against influenza flu. Peramivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor, which prevent emerging of new viruses from infected host cells. Few other examples of anti viral drugs are Delavirdine, Enfuvirtide, Ganciclovir,Imunovir, Methisazone, etc.

If antibiotics are used for viral diseases/infection, the treatment may not be successful. This is because antibiotics are having different mode of actions on bacteria which are not suitable for viruses having unique characteristics with respect to their size, shape, plasmid biomolecules and life cycle. Sometimes bacteria infect humans and the viruses infect or live inside these bacteria. In such cases bacteria itself are killed by viruses which live inside them. These viruses are called as bacteriophages. In many treatments of bacterial infection, viruses are used. This is known as Phage therapy. Viruses are common in bacterial population and helps in control of their growth in different habitats like intestine, the ocean, and even in soil.
Therefore antibiotics are not used for treatment of viral diseases but they are anti viral drugs or Antiviral which act on different targets of viruses. These may be by interfering with the ability of viruses to infiltrate a target cell, use of viral entry inhibitor technique which make viruses unable to identify the receptors for their entry into host cells and thus control their infection and finally treat the patients from viral disease with the use of antiviral.
#10
(01-18-2012, 08:24 PM)ganesh Wrote: immune system is essential for our health explain?


Immune system is like a defense mechanism of our body, and is very essential for our survival. Human being has three line of defense mechanism. The foreign pathogen which if want to infect us has to cross or pass through our three line of defense. These are nature’s gift to us to protect our own life. The first line is non specific barriers like skin, mucosa, hairs etc., second line is white blood cells or leucocytes and third is the specific immune response which employs immunoglobulin’s or antibodies. Without this three line of defense man would have not been able to survive against the pathogens which are present around us in millions and billion numbers. Therefore immune system is essential for our health.

Immune system includes Bone marrow, thymus gland, lymphatic system, spleen, and many tissues. Our immunity has an ability to give response to antigens in two ways as recognition and response. In first phase immune system can distinguish foreign cell or proteins from body’s own cell or proteins; this is a unique property of our immune system. Once the foreign pathogen is recognized, effectors response kills or neutralizes the pathogen from its actions and protects body from infections. And in second phase it also keeps the memory for these pathogens, so in future if again it encounters, immune system can recognize and quickly kill it in very shorter time.

In modern world many vaccines have develop on this principle of recognitions and keeping the memory of the same for lifetime. Examples are virus vaccines like -Polio vaccines, hepatitis vaccines, influenza vaccines, measles vaccines, etc. and bacterial vaccines like Anthrax vaccines, tetanus, DPT vaccines, Typhoid vaccines etc. We have seen the impact of AIDS virus on our society which attacks our immune system.
So Immune system is very essential for our survival & adaptation during the course of evolution on the earth !
#11
second line is white blood cells or leucocytes and third is the specific immune response which employs immunoglobulin’s or antibodies. Without this three line of defense man would have not been able to survive against the pathogens which are present around us in millions and billion numbers. Therefore immune system is essential for our health.
#12
Antibiotics work to destroy bacteria. Bacteria are single-cell organisms. If parasites make it past our natural defenses and start reproducing inside our bodies. We want to destroy the bacteria to eliminate the condition. It has been selected so that it will destroy the preferred bacteria but not the tissues in your human body.
  

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Antibiotics: what are they and how do they work?00