Acute myocardial infarction is a company dedicated to the group of acute coronary syndromes. They are characterized by the sudden appearance of a box suffering ischemic (lack of irrigation) to a portion of the heart muscle caused by acute and total of one of the coronary arteries that feed obstruction.
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death for men and women worldwide.
Many cardiac risk factors are modifiable, so many heart attacks can be prevented if he maintained a lifestyle healthier.
What are the symptoms?
The stroke is recognized by the sudden appearance of the characteristic symptoms: severe pain in the chest, in the chest area (where the tie), general ill feeling, dizziness, nausea and sweating. The pain may spread to the left arm, jaw, shoulder, back or neck.
It should be noted that about half of heart attacks occur without warning symptoms, ie, that the attack is the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease.
Sometimes, however, a few months before having the heart attack patient has chest discomfort, feeling unwell, fatigue, increased irritability, etc., or even sometimes upset stomach, they do confuse the symptoms of stroke with those from other organs.
What is your prognosis?
Most patients with acute myocardial infarction and recover quickly enough to play a normal life. The few that do not get too may undergo percutaneous revascularization or be seized, so very acceptable recoveries are achieved.
The only difference between the patient who has had a myocardial respect of which it has not had is that it should be much stricter with regard to the abandonment of snuff, the practice of regular exercise, proper diet (including restriction of fats animal origin and maintenance of the correct weight) and control of blood pressure levels, cholesterol and blood sugar.
Usually you have to take medicine after infarction. Although recovery of the infarct is successful, the person who suffered should prevent the occurrence of other cardiovascular complications (another heart attack, stroke, aneurysms, etc), which is slightly more likely than other people without heart attack because of its factors particular risk.
Who can get it?
Much of heart attacks occur in people who have known risk factors.
These are, apart from some familial predisposition and age, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and changes in blood fats (cholesterol).
Do you have or suspect suffering acute myocardial infarction?
Anyone with a precordial pain accompanied by malaise, should go as quickly as possible to an Emergency Department. It is best to notify the Homecare Service Urgent appropriate
The reason is that the main risk of acute myocardial infarction is the outpatient phase (ie, before entering the hospital) mortality in this phase exceeds 40%. Once admitted to the hospital, if done well in advance (before the four hours ideally), modern treatments (angioplasty, thrombolysis) permit a satisfactory recovery of stroke and complications they are relatively rare.
What treatments does the doctor has to do?
Some treatments are initiated immediately if a heart attack is suspected, even before the diagnosis is confirmed. Among them they are:
• Aspirin to prevent further blood clots.
• Nitroglycerin to decrease the workload of the heart and improve blood flow through the coronary arteries.
For treatment of a heart attack can use several different types of drugs. Among these they are:
• Thrombolytic: Used to dissolve clots that are blocking the coronary arteries.
• Beta-blockers: They reduce the work the heart has to perform and serve to prevent further heart attacks.
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: lower blood pressure and decrease strain on the heart has to do.
• Anticoagulants They make the blood less thick and prevent the formation of clots in the arteries.
• Antiplatelet agents: prevent platelets stick to one another and form unwanted clots.
• Balloon Angioplasty: it can be used to open coronary arteries that are blocked by a clot.
• Coronary Bypass: a section of a vein or artery from another part of the body is taken and is sewn to the coronary artery above and below the narrowed or blocked area.
After a heart attack care HOW?
- If you smoke, quitting is absolutely essential
This is the first step to take because smokers have a high coronary disease presenting irrigation. The goal is the complete abandonment of snuff. It is therefore essential that the patient is informed about the harm caused by snuff and benefits to be gained if you leave your addiction. The risk of stroke is proportional to the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the number of years of smoking. The use of filters and low-nicotine cigarettes has not proven risk reduction. Patients with heart disease who quit smoking live longer than those who continue to smoke.
Unfortunately, leaving the snuff is not easy. Many patients require assistance that can be offered in a specialized smoking consultation. Also avoid secondhand smoke.
- Watch your weight and cholesterol level
We must reduce consumption of foods high in cholesterol and saturated fat: egg yolks, whole milk and dairy products, lean meats, seafood, meats and offal. We recommend the use of vegetables, legumes, fruits, lean meats, poultry, fish, skim milk, margarine and vegetable oils such as olive, sunflower or corn. If you are hypertensive, you need to make a salt-free diet and, if you have diabetes, follow the recommendations for treatment, diet and exercise endocrinologist directed.
- Sport benefits your heart
Doing exercise is advised because it can bring a number of benefits but always under the supervision of your cardiologist. Cycling, swimming or walking outdoors are the most recommended exercises avoiding overexertion and extreme temperatures.
- Take your work with tranquility
Your cardiologist will tell if his physical ability allows him to return to his regular job. Under normal circumstances, you can return to work but trying not obsessed with work.
- Gradually Resume sexual activity
Patients have a great fear that during intercourse may seem a new stroke. Should wait a reasonable time before starting to gradually return to normal sexual activity. If there are no medical contraindications can be resumed this activity after the second week, starting step by step without obsessing.
- Quiet driving
It is best not to drive during the first weeks by the stress, but once this period can start to drive but as long as does not involve an emotional overload and distances are small.
- Control your emotions, learn to relax.
It would be desirable to reduce stress and learn to relax practicing some relaxation techniques or self-control. In general it should not be obsessed with time and work.
How to prevent it?
Being a disease that has no previous symptoms, it is very important to try to detect it before it manifests clinically, ie, carry out what is called "primary prevention".
To do this it is advisable, from 30 years conducting clinical and / or cardiac monitoring periodically. There he made professional studies such as echocardiography, and resting electrocardiogram and / or force. Out also it can lead a stress test, which the patient's overall risk cover. Then, according to the results, it will move forward or not with more complex studies.
In this preventive stage, doctors focus on identifying whether the patient is within the parameters we call risky, then emphasize the dietary recommendation hygienic measures.
If you smoke quit.
Do aerobic activity 3 times a week, regardless of age. Examples: running, walking, swimming or cycling. Go to the gym to lift weights not the same function.
Have a healthy diet, increasing the intake of fibers found in fruits and vegetables, and consumption of unsaturated fatty acids found in fish and olive oil.
REMEMBER YOU AND YOUR FAMILY ARE IMPORTANT FOR THAT TAKE CARE OF YOUR HEART
And as a final recommendation remember: The first is YOUR heart.