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What is Bioremediation Process and its Types
Bioremediation is the branch of biotechnology which deals with the methods of solving the environmental problems. It also plays vital role in cleaning the environment from pollutants and contaminants by using the microorganisms and fungi. Bacteria are the most important microbes in this process because they break the dead materials into organic matter and nutrients. It is not necessary that all types of contaminants can be destroyed with bioremediation; heavy metals like lead and cadmium are not the type of contaminants which can be decomposed by the microorganisms. Special type of contaminants like chlorinated pesticides cab easily digested by bacteria. Similarly oil spills can also be cleaned by bacteria.

How does bioremediation work:-
For the process of bioremediation, it is necessary that microorganisms should be healthy and active so that they can perform their duty efficiently. It is not necessary that all the microorganisms detoxify the same contaminants and toxins but for different toxins there are different microorganisms because there are different habitats for different organisms.

Bioremediation can take place in two conditions that are aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In anaerobic condition, microbes need oxygen to perform their duty. If they will get oxygen in sufficient amount they will be able to easily convert the contaminants and toxins into water and carbon. In anaerobic conditions, microbes do the activity in the absence of oxygen. Chemical compounds which are present in the soil can be decomposed by bacteria under anaerobic conditions. As a result energy produces which is used by the microbes.

Types of Bioremediation:-
There are three types of bioremediation and all are used to remove toxic substances and contaminants from the environment whether they are rivers or crude oils.

Biostimulation is the method in which bacteria are motivated to start the process of bioremediation. In this method, first he experts release nutrients and other important substances in the soil where there is need or removing the contaminants. These are in the form of gas or liquid. It increases the growth of microbes in that area. As a result bacteria and other microorganisms remove the contaminants quickly and efficiently.

In some processes of bioremediation, there are some special sites where microorganisms are needed to remove the contaminants for example municipal wastewater. Bioaugmentation is used for that purpose. But unfortunately this process is not very successful as it is difficult to control the growth of microorganisms to remove the particular contaminant.

Intrinsic Bioremediation:-
The process of intrinsic bioremediation takes place in soil and water because these two places are always full of contaminants and toxins. This process is also called as natural attenuation. It also means use of the microorganisms to remove the harmful substances from soil and water. Especially those sites are treated with this method, which are underground, for example underground petroleum tanks. It is difficult to know if there is a leakage in the petroleum pipes. Contaminants and toxins find their way to enter in these sites and create harmful effects on the petrol. Therefore, only microorganisms can destroy the toxins and clean the tanks. Great care should be taken if some leakage occurs in the petroleum tanks or pipes because it may damage the human health.
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What is Bioremediation Process and its Types - by NatashaKundi - 09-19-2010, 04:16 PM
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