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What is Bioremediation Process and its Types
Thanks, to sharing here a helpful information. Bioremediation is determined as use of biological procedures to lower, break down, convert, and/or basically eliminate contaminants or impairments of quality from soil and water. Bioremediation is a natural process which depends on parasites, fungus, and vegetation to improve pollutants as these creatures bring out their regular life features. Metabolic procedures of these creatures are capable of using substance pollutants as an power source, making the pollutants simple or less harmful products in most cases. This document summarizes the common procedures of bioremediation within the ground atmosphere, concentrating on biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. The effect of ground circumstances on rate of biodegradation of hydrocarbons is resolved. There are two types of Bioremediation In-Situ Remediation and Ex-Situ Remediation.
Bioremediation is another fantastic example of how microbes can help improve human life. As a species, we excel at finding ways to make nature work for us, and microbes are not immune from this. Bioremediation is much a very eco-friendly way to help purify waste water. The enzymes produced by the bacteria are much more natural than man-made chemicals and detergents, and are less likely to cause harm to organisms in the environment. While often the initial human reaction to the word bacteria is thinking of sickness, the vast majority of bacteria on earth are either beneficial or benign.

We can also use bacteria to clean up oil spills. There are certain bacteria that can metabolize petroleum, and use it as a fuel in place of other types of organic hydrocarbons. This is much safer for the ecosystem than introducing large quantities of detergents. The detergents may even be more toxic to some organisms than the oil itself. Even though using bacteria to clean up oil spills sounds like an ideal solution, there are some concerns. Some people argue that introducing a foreign bacterial strain to an area could harm the ecosystem. Indeed, these petroleum-eating bacteria will multiply and become a very large part of the ecosystem as they break down the oil. However, once the oil is gone, the bacteria lose their food source, and their levels will decrease. Another problem with using bacteria to clean up oil spills is that the water temperature must be at a specific range in order for the bacteria to work efficiently. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to control the temperature of the ocean.

Also, I have just one quick correction. Aerobic bioremediation occurs in the presence of oxygen. Anaerobic bioremediation occurs in the absence of oxygen. The original post stated that anaerobic bioremediation occurs in the presence and absence of oxygen.
Use of biological organisms, such as bacteria, fungi (usually) and plants (sometimes), to reduce or eliminate toxic pollutants from contaminated sites by degradation, assimilation or transpiration in the atmosphere is called bioremediation. Degradation is the mode of elimination mostly in case of organic compounds, while heavy metals are assimilated.

1. Microbial bioremediation

Bioremediation of organic compounds is primarily based on either microorganisms naturally present at the sites, or on microbial inoculants developed in the laboratory and introduced at the site. Certain bacterial, fungal and algal species are capable of accumulating some toxic inorganic contaminants as well. However, there is no cost-effective method of removing these microorganisms from the soil after they have sequestered the inorganic ions. Therefore, bioremediation of inorganic contaminants is primarily based on suitable plant species.

E.g. oil spills are known to cause fire, ground water pollution due to percolation, death of marine life and air pollution on evaporation. Earlier saw dust was used to treat oil spills. However, with the advent of bioremediation techniques, oil-eating bacteria have been used to treat the oil spills in a much more efficient and cost effective way.

E.g. Pseudomonas sp

2. Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation is the use of green plants and their associated microorganisms, soil amendments. And agronomic practices to remove contain or render harmless environmental contaminants. Plants were first used in Germany for sewage treatment over 300 years ago and since then their use has become rather common. Plants are also used to decontaminate soils polluted by organic wastes. For example, carrots are used to absorb DDT; these carrots are harvested, air dried and incinerated to destroy the DDT.

Plant roots absorb organic compounds and perform remediation by accumulating the organics in plant tissues, translocation to leaf and then volatilization or by metabolizing and degrading the organic compounds intrinsically using enzymes.

Plants remove inorganic contaminants wither by contaminant volatilization or by metal accumulation. Volatilization is a useful process for recovering mercury however the latter method is preferred for other inorganic compounds. The plants used in bioremediation have to be appropriately disposed.

E.g. A. thaliana converts volatile Hg to Hg (O)
Thanks for sharing such an interesting and informative post. I want to add few more lines in that Bioremediation does not solely depend on microorganisms. Bioremediation is the process of utilizing biological means to eliminate toxic wastes from the environment. Phytoremediation is a bioremediation involving plants. Bioremediation can be carried out using live, dead or resting cells of microorganisms. Contaminated soil recovery and management of polluted environment can be successfully handled by bioremediation process.

Since, bioremediation is a flourishing and effective cleaning mechanism for polluted environment it is in use in many places around the world with varying degree of success. This results in strong scientific growth of the process.

Bioremediation is based on two major techniques: biodegradation and biosorption i.e. either the pollutant is degraded to a less polluting substance so that it can enter easily into the biogeochemical cycle or it is absorbed within the body of the biological substances used. So it is clear that biodegradation is metabolism dependent, whereas biosorption is independent of metabolism of the cells involved.

Bioremediation came up as a solution for several environmental pollution issues like landfill stabilization, endocrine disrupters, mixed waste biotreatment and biological carbon sequestration specially using aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and fungi.

Bioremediation has capacity to detoxify effluents and solid wastes at low cost with less impact on the environment. No doubt it is coming up as an attractive alternative to conventional cleaning techniques. Though the method is not very complex, still it needs enough knowledge and experience to successfully set up a bioremediation plant.

Proper use can make bioremediation a economically favorable treatment for cleaning certain oil-contaminated environments. But there are certain constraints. Spilled oil cannot be treated in open environment using Bioaugmentation where the addition of nutrients gives similar results. But in confined spaces Bioaugmentation works better. Addition of nutrients along with bioremediation can be a potent alternative in handling oil-contaminated coasts. This process can be used both as a primary as well as secondary (after conventional method) strategy to counter oil-spill, depending on the nature and location of the spill i.e. whether to be cleaned immediately or not. Efficiency of biostimulation is also highly site-specific and depends on the factors like availability of oxygen and nutrients. The process works better when oxygen is not a limiting factor. In anaerobic situations addition of nutrients often has very less impact on oil biodegradation. The choice of nutrients is also important and depends on the nature of oil spills.

Nevertheless bioremediation possess a bright future in cleaning our environment and thus demand thrust and more energy as well as investments for future studies and successful scientific implementation of the process.

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