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Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment and Latest Research
Let us first understand the basis of the research that driven the invention of the drug that actually 'Mimics Exercise' and helps controlling blood sugar levels and hence diabetes:

Quote:When ever you exercise, your body cells get depleted of energy and hence the glucose uptake into the cells from blood takes place and ATP (energy) is produced. So, the researchers from University of Southampton (England) ended up finding a pathway (alternative to the conventional one) to activate an important protein (enzyme) required for glucose uptake by the cells, thereby successfully mimicking the effects of exercise (some, if not all effects though).

This research was published in the Cell journal on July 23rd 2015. They have named the drug as "Compound 14". Following is a graphical abstract to their research followed by the 'verbatim abstract from the journal'. You may read the full article in PubMed or Cell.
[Image: fx1.jpg]

Note the following is taken exactly from the original article:


5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (known as ZMP) is a metabolite produced in de novo purine biosynthesis and histidine biosynthesis, but only utilized in the cell by a homodimeric bifunctional enzyme (called ATIC) that catalyzes the last two steps of de novo purine biosynthesis. ZMP is known to act as an allosteric activator of the cellular energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), when exogenously administered as the corresponding cell-permeable ribonucleoside. Here, we demonstrate that endogenous ZMP, produced by the aforementioned metabolic pathways, is also capable of activating AMPK. Using an inhibitor of ATIC homodimerization to block the ninth step of de novo purine biosynthesis, we demonstrate that the subsequent increase in endogenous ZMP activates AMPK and its downstream signaling pathways. We go on to illustrate the viability of using this approach to AMPK activation as a therapeutic strategy with an in vivo mouse model for metabolic disorders.


•AICAR transformylase is targeted in cells with an ATIC homodimerization inhibitor
•The resulting increase in endogenous ZMP is sufficient to activate AMPK
•Downstream AMPK signaling is also activated, significantly altering cell metabolism
•A mouse model of metabolic syndrome is used to show therapeutic viability

The original article is an open access article available at:
Sunil Nagpal
MS(Research) Scholar, IIT Delhi (Alumnus)
Advisor for the Biotech Students portal (
Computational Researcher in BioSciences at a leading MNC

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Lifestyle changes have been shown to reduce the risk of both cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Lifestyle changes includes such things as introduction of daily exercise, quitting smoking, moderation of alcohol and diet modification with less fat, red meat, salt and sugar. It has been shown that yoga has been beneficial with fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels, in that it reduces the amount. However do not think yoga alone in high risk persons is sufficient alone to prevent diabetes, it does decrease free fatty acids, increase lean body mass and decrease body fat percentage.

1. Sahay BK. 2007. Role of Yoga in Diabetes. J Association Physician India. Vol34:645-648. [Internet] Available from Accessed on 28th August 2015.

Such a Informative post I have just read, thank you for the information.
I wonder what makes the treatment of Diabetes so difficult. Given the fact that we have at our disposal so many great techniques like Genetic engineering, Immune modulation, artificial devices etc, what makes diabetes (a simple hormonal deficiency/ resistance disease) so elusive?

I was thinking about the following being probable options to cure diabetes. Can anyone help me out in quantifying their merit?:

A. Insulin producing transgenic bacterial strains could be utilized as probiotics. This would enable a growth of such bacteria in our gut, and insulin will be produced right in our gut. Why can't we do that?

B. Can't we clone the cells that produce insulin and implant them in Pancreas?

C. If we eat Bitter gourd and Ridge gourd daily, (proven helpful for Type 2 diabetics), can't we prevent diabetes? or even keep it at the bay?

D. Why don't we develop a device that can be implanted inside our body with 2-4 years of insulin stock in it, and program it to release the dosage as and when needed? It would atleast make the life less miserable. Only 10-15 refillings using minor surgeries should be more comfortable than punching holes in the skin everyday!

Looking forward to getting good opinions and suggestions and advices.

Thank you


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