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Application of Nanorobotics-The future of molecular nanotechnology
#1
Much advance has been made in the field of nanotechnology and nanomedicine, which has initiated the study of the use of robots in the nanometer scale known as nanorobots. The technology of nanorobots has become a raging topic and advanced research is being carried out for the use of robots in the therapeutics of various fatal diseases, for various biomedical applications and manipulations in nanomedicine. The building of biosensors and the nanokinetic devices are a major requirement in the operation and locomotion of nanorobots. Although, nanorobots remain to be a part of scientific fiction, they may have much clinical aspect in future medical diagnostics. Manipulation of nanorobots is a technology enabled by the NanoElectroMechanical Systems or NEMS. With various novel materials and structures in nanoscale, NEMS will help in the development of new nanosensors and nanoactuators.

The science of nanorobotics plays a vital role in the development of robots, whose structure is built by using nanoscale components and objects. The nature of the components being in the nano scale allows the researchers for the engineering of the mimic of human beings. The construction of the various complex parts, which constitute the robots have been possible due to nanorobotics. Nanobots, nanites, nanoids or nanomites are some of the hypothetical devices created with the knowledge of nanorobotics.

Various approaches have been used for the development of nanorobots such as
a) self-directed assembly as seen in the self-assembled monolayers, self-assembled lipidic micelles and vesicles, which follow the Brownian theory of self-assembly.

b) DNA-directed assembly using part of DNA for assembling, which works on the self-assembly principle of complementary base pairing and has application in the DNA based rotary motors.

c) Protein-directed assembly as is seen in genetically engineered chaperon proteins that help in the assembly of gold nanoparticles and CDSe semiconductor quantum dots into arrays in the nanoscale range. Ratchet action protein based molecular motors have also found much application in biology.

d) Microbes and virus directed assembly, which includes various bacteria that are incorporated into microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and help in acting as living motors, pumps, etc. Viral capsid shells have also found application in acting as scaffolds for the assembly of the nanoparticles such as quantum dots.

The study of the nanorobots is creating wider applications in near future. A number of potential applications of the nanorobots have been brought forward such as
1. Transmigration of the WBC and other inflammatory cells to the inflamed tissues by attaching to them for accelerating the healing process.

2. Drug delivery nanorobots, known as ‘pharmacytes’ will be applied in future therapeutics related to cancer in chemotherapy for precise dosage administration of the chemicals as well as in the anti-HIV therapeutics.

3. Can be used as ancillary devices for processing different chemical reactions in the injured organs.

4. Can help in the control and monitor of glucose levels in diabetic patients.

5. They may be utilized for the targeting and destruction of kidney stones.

6. Can be applied in the therapeutics for atherosclerosis. The atherosclerotic plaques are localized mainly in the coronary arteries. The medical nanorobots may help in locating the atherosclerotic lesions in the stenosed blood vessels and help in their mechanical, chemical, or pharmacological treatment.

7. Nanodentistry is one of the unique applications, whereby nanorobots help in different processes involved in dentistry. They help in inducing oral anaesthesia, desensitization of tooth, manipulation of the tissue for the re-allignment and straightening of the irregular set of teeth and for the improvement of the teeth durability, major tooth repair, generation of nanofiller, improvement of appearance of teeth, etc.

8. Can help in surgery by using surgical nanorobots for nanomanipulation in the target site with programming and guidance from a surgeon.

9. Can find application in cryostasis i.e. reversal of freezing injury by introduction of cryoprotectants and other chemicals into the vascular system rapidly suing nanorobots.

10. Can help in the diagnosis and testing of different diseases and help in their monitoring by recording different biological variables such as temperature, pressure, activity of immune system, etc very rapidly at the target site after oral introduction of nanorobots.

11. Can help in gene therapy for different genetic diseases by helping in introducing different modifications and correction by editing in the right place in the DNA or the proteins attached to the DNA.

However, some disadvantages accompany the use of nanorobots. The complexity of the design and manufacture accompanied by high cost is a major drawback in its wide application. The other disadvantages are the possible anti-social applications that accompany every new discovery in science.

In spite of the drawbacks, the application of molecular nanotechnology may help in the development of therapeutics for different fatal diseases in future, thus creating a revolution in healthcare.


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#2
Application of Nanorobotics in Medical field:
Nanorobots would constitute any smart structure capable of actuation,sensing,signalling,information processing,intelligence and manipulation at nano scale.Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens.
some application using nanorobots are as follow:
1) Medical nanodevice could augment the immune system by finding and disabling unwanted bacteria and viruses.
2) To cure skin diseases,a cream containing nanorobots may be used.It could remove the right amount of dead skin,remove excess oils,add missing oils and even achieve the elusive goal of 'deep pore cleaning' by actually reaching down into pores and cleaning them out.
3)A mouthwash full of smart nano machine could identify and destroy pathogenic bacteria while allowing the harmless flora of mouth to flourish in a healthy ecosystem.
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#3
Self-directed assembly as seen in the self-assembled monolayers, self-assembled lipidic micelles and vesicles, which follow the Brownian theory of self-assembly.
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#4
One of the most important applications of nanoscience and nanotechnology is in the field of medicine. This field has been receiving a lot of attention from existing biotechnology companies (or "biotech" companies) and new biotech companies.
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