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Nanocochleate - A Miracle in Scientific Drug Delivery

After years of research on liposome it has been possible to create a new class of drug delivery vehicles called COCHLEATES. They are stable, protects drug from harsh environmental condition and also prevent drying of drug. Cochleate are calcium-phospholipids structures that engulf the drug to be introduced to body within itself.

Cochleate were discovered by Dr. D. Papahadjoupoulos and co-workers, in 1975 and have been used in late 80s and early 90s for delivery of antigens. Nanocochleates were introduced in 1999 to develop smaller particles for encapsulation of hydrophobic drugs of small size. They are cigar like micro structure composed of multiple series of lipid bi layer. They are elongated structures unlike liposome which are circular in shape.

Nanocochleates consists of a purified soy based phospholipids that contains at least about 75% by weight of lipid which can be phosphotidyl serine (PS), dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS), phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidyl glycerol (PG) and /or a mixture of one or more of these lipids with other lipids. A multivalent cation, which can be Zn+2 or Ca+2 or Mg+2 or Ba+2 and a drug.
Drug can be protein, peptide, polynucleotide, antiviral agent, anesthetic, anticancer agent, immunosuppressant, steroidal anti inflammatory agent, non steroidal anti inflammatory agents, tranquilizer, nutritional supplement, herbal product, vitamin and/or vasodilator agent .

Cochleates are generally prepared by four major methods:
a) Hydrogel method:
b) Trapping method
c) Dialysis method
d) Direct calcium dialysis method

Even though the outer layer of the cochleate is exposed to harsh conditions or enzyme the component within the multilayer remains intact. The interior of cochleates is essentially free of water and resistant to penetration of foreign components. Even after drying cochleates to powder and storing at freezing temperature they can be reconstructed and the process of drying have no adverse effect on the working of them.

• They are easily observed under microscope and are produced with ease and safety.
• Due to limited oxygen permeability, drugs are prevented from oxidation.
• Provide ease of shipping and storage of drugs before administration.
• Hydrophobic molecules and tissues impermeable drugs can be transferred into body via cochleates.
• Specificity of target part of the body can be maintained using them.
• They are made unique by their structure that enables them to be a great delivery vehicle.
• With administration of live vaccine they are many life threatening risk associated like allergies , inversion of vaccine effect to wild infection etc. these can be neglected by use of Nanocochleates
• Multiple administrations of high doses of cochleate formulations to the same animal show no toxicity and do not result in either the development of an immune response to the cochleat.

• Production of ApoA1 (i.e. Apo lipoprotein) in treatment of Atherosclerosis and other heart diseases.
ApoA1 is a High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) which carries out esterification of cholesterol and transfers it to lever thus protecting it from arthrosclerosis. As ApoA1 is a protein it degrades gastrointestinal enzymes hence are not used as in tact molecule. So Nanocochlaetes provide a good platform for ApoA1 delivery.
• Used in delivering Amphotericin B, an anti fungal agent orally with least harm, good safety and also reduced cost of treatment.
• They can also deliver omega 3 in cakes, soups and cookies without harming products taste appearance or odor
• They are also used to deliver protein, DNA for vaccine and gene therapy.

Nanocochleates could be a major breakthrough in scientifically made drugs suitable for large level of drug delivery with up most care and accuracy of treatment.

2. Dr. David Deimarre, Dr. Susan Gould Fogerite, Dr. Rapheal J. Mannino ; FORMULATION OF HYDROPHOBIC DRUGS INTO COCHLEATES DELIVERY VEHICLE
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