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Role of Bacteria in Environment
Yes thats true bacteria are found everywhere and they are also helpful for us.Take the simple example of Curd and Spices.They both contain bacteria and we all know that they are used in our daily routine.
Bacteria, indeed, have retained their predominant position and hold sway not only by virtue of a long and illustrious history but also for abundant reasons of contemporary vigor. Bacteria give yogurt its tangy flavor and sourdough bread its sour taste.

Bacteria, and other micro-organisms are essentially important in the cycling of nutrients and energy, particularly in the breakdown of dead organic matter to make the resources locked up in things like dead trees available again to other living organisms.

They also play a central role and the fixation of atmospheric Nitrogen into organic molecules and in the cycling of minerals such as Carbon and Sulfer. Bacteria also make, or help to make, drugs, hormones, or antibodies
Apart from above applications of bacteria, there are many other promising discoveries being made continuously and which are applied in Medical, Nanotechnology, diagnostic and environmental fields. Not only bacteria, but bacterial spores are considered as potential source of development in nanotechnology. This is due to their unique property of withstanding extreme conditions and showing resistance against specific physical and chemical circumstances. Bacterial spores are considered as dormant phase of bacterial life cycle and are very robust form. This coat that is spore is made up of multilayer proteins and other bio molecules. In nanotechnology, spores are being used as self assembling promoters and are very specific in delivery of foreign molecules as and where required. With slight genetic modification, they develop unique properties which are used in nanotechnology like spore coat are used as vehicle for vaccination and for heterologous antigen presentation.
There are two main genera of bacteria which are undergoing sporulation are Bacillus and Clostridium and are most resistant to high temperature, high pH , Rh and even toxic chemicals. Another unique property of bacterial and their spore is the lattice-type crystalline arrays which they produce. These types of protective properties are being used in delivery of specific molecule to specified sites and thus these bacteria and their spores act as a vehicle!
Microorganisms are known as the first living creatures of our planet earth. They are on earth before humans. They created all necessary changes in the environment (with their catabolic and anabolic biochemical pathways) which are necessary for the formation of multi-cellular life like animals and plants. It is possible that they might have developed first molecule of oxygen in a symbiotic method with other creatures. They earlier existed in deep oceans from where they evolved with the use of solar energy for their food and water. Today the same photosynthetic pathway is employed by chlorophyll containing plants.

Bacteria have very unique characteristics of withstanding against extremes conditions. These are extreme cold, hot, extreme pH, extreme relative humidity and other extreme chemical environment. Whatever is the condition, they survive. This is done either by sporulation or by developing the required phenotypes in next generations, like capsules and strong cell walls etc., this power had helped bacteria and other microorganisms to evolve strongly along with other animals and even with humans.
Bacteria is helping environment by fixing atmospheric nitrogen for plants with the help of their unique gene which is known as “Nif gene”. This helps bacteria to fix nitrogen in to nitrate which can be easily utilized by plants. They also degrade complex wastes into simpler form and helps in maintaining the natural balance.
Today we cannot image medical science without microorganism and antibiotic producing bacteria. [b]They are used widely in biotechnology in production of insulin and many such other products which had helped mankind![/b]

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